Sendmail - How to test sending email, verbosely using Sendmail

Mail Server :


Purpose :

To verbosely test sending of email using sendmail

Here how :

Prepare a file with name "mail.txt". This will be the email header & contents that we wanna include when test sending this email. The contents of the file should look like below :


PC-BSD - Error when restarting pf firewall or within Ports Jail

Trigger :

When pf service is restarted

Error messages :

# /etc/rc.d/pf restart
Disabling pf
pf disabled
Enabling pf
no IP address found for lo1:network
/etc/pf.conf:4: could not parse host specification
no IP address found for lo1:network
/etc/pf.conf:5: could not parse host specification
pfctl: Syntax error in config file: pf rules not loaded
pf enabled

Side Effect :

When running "Ports Jail" terminal with portsnap or installation, it will failed because there's not internet connection present.

Why :

The interface "lo1:network" is missing due to abnormal shutdown of "portjail" service.


RFC 2606 - Domain names for testing

In this blog, often the output or the example used needed to be masked before posting. To protect the original server/identity. But when it comes to domain names, we can't simple quote some random name, it might be an active domain (in the future, if not now).

Also, for documentation or presentation, we tend to use mock up domain, server or host name. How to make sure that server, domain or host name is not in used?

In RFC 2606, there are domain names that serve this purpose :


RFC 2142 - Mailbox Names for Common Services, Roles and Functions

RFC stands for Request For Comments. Not all RFC documents end up as standards. But it is indeed a good read to find out how standards works. For example, RFC 2142 list emails that should be reserve for its purpose :


FreeBSD - How to change time zone

Platform :

Objective :
Change the FreeBSD system clock time zone

Command :